The production of biofuels has to be more efficient in order to be sustainable, with minimal or non utilization of edible plants.Â Based on this reasoning, scientists have developed new types of biofuels, such as biofuels from plant waste, decomposing trash and whiskey. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), biofuels have the potential to replaces
The production of biofuels has to be more efficient in order to be sustainable, with minimal or non utilization of edible plants.Â Based on this reasoning, scientists have developed new types of biofuels, such as biofuels from plant waste, decomposing trash and whiskey.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), biofuels have the potential to replaces over 25% of all transport fuel, including jet fuelÂ by mid-century.
In order to achieve this in a sustainable way, it is essential that the new generation of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol, liquid biomass – diesel, gas and biosynthetic algae become commercially available in the next ten years.
First-generation biofuels derived from corn and wheat has proved to be very bad for the ecosystem and blamed for causing deforestation, unstable food prices and even for human rights violations. Many see them as a transitional solution must be replaced with viable alternatives.
Scientists are trying to make better use of crop residues and by-products and turn them into the next generation of biofuels.Â Scientists are trying to use lignin and cellulose from crop in using enzymes to turn ‘ligno-cellulosic feedstocks’ in blood sugar levels, which can then be fermented into biofuel and destilizovati.
Due to the increased use of plants, ligno-cellulosic biofuels deliver more energy per kilogram of raw material. This increase in efficiency can help biofuels become more sustainable and cost effective and thus reduce the use of arable land for obtaining
biofuels, leaving more space for growing food.
To achieve a fully sustainable way of supplying biomass, scientists study the cellulose in non-food raw materials such as wood chips, straw, willow and grass that can be grown on poor soils without much irrigation, petrochemical fertilizers and plowing makes them cheaper with a smaller carbon footprint.
According to the IEA, cellulose ethanol could be better in terms of energy balance, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and less demanding in terms of land use in relation to the starch-based biofuels such as corn ethanol.
Conventional biodiesel mainly consists of grains such as rapeseed / canola, palm oil and soybean that are used in many food products. Research on advanced biodiesel based on the saturated vegetable oil (HVO) and the current biomass and is also known as Fischer-Tropsch diesel.
CDC produced from heterogeneity vegetable oil or animal fat, which is the addition of hydrogen increases the energy content. The first plant of this kind are open in Finland and Singapore, but the fuel is not yet commercialized.Â Liquid biomass – diesel or gas is obtained from agricultural and municipal waste via heating, and then converted to a series of liquid biofuels, including synthetic kerosene that can be used as jet fuel.
Biosynthetic gas and biobutanol
Natural gas vehicles are more popular in Asia and Latin America, and can be driven on bio-methaneÂ gas obtained from landfills, livestock manure and other organic materials.
Techniques for making the gas include microorganisms or anaerobic digestion of biomass heating in order to obtain gas. The first demo plant for the production of bio-methane from solid biomass using heat came on line in late 2008 in Austria.
Bio-buthanol can be produced by fermentation of sugar by bacteria and is used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Scientists at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland using by-products from the production of whiskey for the production of biobutanol, which researchers claim that gives 30 percent more energy than ethanol.
Algae have the highest potential for production of biofuels because of the very high oil content, phenomenal growth, the fact that it is grown on non-agricultural land, and that is the growing need only sunlight, waste water and carbon dioxide. Algae can also be used to recycle CO2 emissions from existing power plants.
Proponents claim that algae acre of corn can produce several hundred liters of ethanol per year, an acre of algae can produce thousands of liters. However, finding the right place to grow large quantities of algae remains a problem, as well as the economy of production of fuel from algae.
Biofuels from algae are still in demo plants and laboratories, and are not commercially available. With rising oil prices and poor conventional biofuels this could soon change.