For centuries hydro energy has been used for production of mechanical energy. In the last 100 years it is also used for production of electricity. The kinetic energy of water flow is used to drive the turbine which is connected to generator that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. Large hydro power plants are built
For centuries hydro energy has been used for production of mechanical energy. In the last 100 years it is also used for production of electricity. The kinetic energy of water flow is used to drive the turbine which is connected to generator that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Large hydro power plants are built on locations thatÂ have significant amount of water and height difference. Mainly those hydroÂ power plants are built with accumulation with the dam that creates theÂ reservoir and then with pipes water is directed to turbine. At present timeÂ there is less construction of those large hydro power plants and there is
increase in construction of small flow hydro power plants.
Small hydro power plants started to use in 1883 andÂ first plants of this kind were in North Ireland (two turbines with power of 40Â kW and height difference 10m) and in Brazil (two turbines with the power of 12Â kW and height difference of 5m). Small hydro power plants also use kineticÂ energy of water to produce electricity. These plants are mainly flow plants,Â meaning that they take one part of river that goes on turbine, while other partÂ continue its path. This water that is taken on turbine is returned again inÂ river. Power of these plants goes up to 10 MW. The work of these plants dependÂ a lot on annual amount of precipitations, because electricity production isÂ directly dependent on flow of water.
The main topicÂ in the world today is whether smallÂ hydro power plants have a negative impact on life in river. The answer on thisÂ question is that there is no answer. Everyone has different opinion about thisÂ topic. The one thing that is certain is that small power plants have lessÂ impact on environment than large hydro power plants. For example, in theÂ construction of large hydro power plant â€œThree Gorges Damâ€ in China floodedÂ about 29 million square kilometers of land and displaced over million people toÂ make artificial lake that now collects all dirt and garbage from surroundingÂ cities.
The main advantages of small hydro power plants are:
– There are no negative emissions (sulfur,Â nitrogen and carbon oxides)
-Â Safer and more reliable supply ofÂ electricity (total efficiency over 90%)
-Â Positive social impacts (employment)
-Â Flow control and river flooding
The main disadvantages of small hydro power plants are:
-Â The impact on river bio system
-Â Noise and vibration
-Â Variation of flow (water level)
-Â High investment costs
Everyone will and can say their opinion about smallÂ hydro power plants but the fact is that they are renewable energy. They do notÂ emit negative emissions into the atmosphere and does not contribute to climateÂ change. Bosnia and Herzegovina have potential to construct and build new smallÂ hydro power plants and we have new investors coming. Those investments willÂ help local people with the new jobs.